Croton-on-Hudson is a village in Westchester County, New York, United States. The population was 8,070 at the 2010 census. It is located in the town of Cortlandt, in New York City's northern suburbs. The village was incorporated in 1898. Croton-on-Hudson is the original home of the Hudson Institute, a key Cold War think tank where the justification for nuclear war was developed.